In conventional microscopy, the resolution is diffraction-limited and on the order of the wavelength. In order to exceed this barrier, many nonlinear microscopy techniques are developed such as MPE (multi-photon excitation), SHG (second harmonic generation), CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy). The nonlinear interactions are possible only if the photon density is extremely high. When a femtosecond pulse is tightly focused, the photon density may reach this level at the central region of the focal point which is much smaller than the wavelength. By this way, much higher resolution is possible with very low background noise. However, many of these techniques utilize fluorophores which emits fluorescense light when they are excited at specific wavelengths so the wavelength of the laser source is desired to be largely adjustable. Fiblas offers adjustable-wavelength femtosecond fiber lasers suitable for these applications.
Lasers are actively used for many years in ophthalmology. In a traditional refractive eye surgery, a microkeratome blade is used to cut a corneal flap in order to reach a clean cornea surface and then an excimer laser is used to reshape the cornea. In recent years, femtosecond lasers are replacing the microkeratome instruments for flap cutting. Similarly, femtosecond lasers are shown to be accurate and reliable tools for photodisruptive cataract treatment compared to previously used Nd:YAG lasers. Fiblas offers various femtosecond fiber lasers suitable for these applications. As replacements of the inefficient excimer lasers, precise UV nanosecond fiber lasers are also under development.
If a laser beam with suitable parameters (wavelength, intensity, pulse energy) is absorbed by the tissue, it will heat but just minimally damage the tissue while triggering a healing response. By this way, it is possible to treat solar lentigines, acne scars or reduce wrinkles. For this application, Fiblas offers nanosecond Thulium fiber lasers operating at 2 µm wavelength where the absorption of water is much higher.
For a long time, lasers have been considered as replacements of drills since they induce less pain, bleeding and swelling. The main problem is that the absorption peak of tooth enamel is near 3 µm wavelength which is not easily accessible with conventional fiber lasers. Fiblas offers fiber laser pumped mid-IR lasers suitable for this application.
Lasers are prefered in surgical operations whenever possible since less bleeding occurs while cutting the tissue. Thulium and Holmium fiber lasers are used in cardivascular surgery (transmyocardial revascularization) and urology (lithotripsy, benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment). Femtosecond fiber lasers allow sub-cellular operations like cutting cytoskeletal filaments or axons of a neuron.
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